Nationals of the European Union (EU) have the right to free movement within all countries in the EU. They need neither a visa for entry into Germany nor a residence permit for their stay. Moreover, EU citizens have unrestricted access to the labour market in Germany. EU citizens can stay in Germany without conditions for a period of three months. All you need is a valid ID document (identity card or passport).
The following groups have the right to stay in Germany for longer than 3 months:
- Employed or self-employed persons
- Jobseekers (usually for up to 6 months)
- Non-employed persons, as well as students and trainees who have secured livelihood and health insurance
- Permanent residents
- Family members of the persons mentioned above
Citizens of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway
Citizens of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway have the same rights as EU citizens. They, too, enjoy the right to free movement.
Swiss citizens also enjoy freedom of movement within the EU. They only need to apply for a special declaratory residence permit Switzerland (“Aufenthaltserlaubnis Schweiz”) at their relevant immigration authority. Which immigration authority is relevant for you, depends on your registered address.
Family members who are not nationals of the EU/EEA or Switzerland need a visa for entry into Germany and an appropriate residence permit for their permanent stay.
At the website of the European Comission you will find more information about freedom of movement.